Health Hub

Understanding Prostate Enlargement: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

Understanding Prostate Enlargement: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment


Prostate enlargement, also known as Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), is a common condition that affects men, particularly as they age. This condition can significantly impact daily life, causing discomfort and frequent urination. It's estimated that about half of men in their 60s, and up to 90% in their 70s and 80s, have some symptoms of BPH.

Key Takeaways

  • An enlarged prostate, or Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), commonly affects men as they age.
  • Common symptoms of an enlarged prostate include frequent urination, difficulty starting urination, and a weak urine stream.
  • Causes of prostate enlargement are not fully understood but may involve hormonal changes and genetics.
  • Complications of BHP can include urinary tract infections and kidney damage.
  • Diagnosis of BPH involves physical exams and tests like a PSA blood test.
  • Treatments range from lifestyle changes and medications to prostate surgery.
  • Men over 50, especially those with a family history or certain medical conditions, are at higher risk.


Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland. The prostate is a small gland that produces seminal fluid in men. An enlarged prostate can press against the urethra, causing a variety of urinary symptoms.


The symptoms of BPH can vary, but often include:
- Frequent or urgent need to urinate
- Difficulty starting urination
- Weak urine stream or a stream that stops and starts
- Dribbling at the end of urination
- Inability to completely empty the bladder

"BPH is a common part of ageing for men and understanding the condition is key to managing symptoms effectively." - Mayo Clinic#


The exact cause of BPH is not entirely understood. However, it appears to be related to changes in male sex hormones as men age. Factors such as genetics and environmental influences may also play a role.

Impact and Complications

If left untreated, BPH can lead to complications such as urinary tract infections, bladder stones, and kidney damage. It can also significantly impact a man's quality of life, causing discomfort and frequent interruptions to sleep due to the need to urinate.

At risk groups

  • Men over the age of 50
  • Men with a family history of BPH
  • Men with medical conditions such as obesity, heart and circulatory disease, and type 2 diabetes
  • Men of African descent are at higher risk than men of Asian descent


The most important investigations for a patient with a suspected enlarged prostate, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), typically include:
1. Medical history and physical examination, including a digital rectal exam (DRE) to assess the size, shape, and consistency of the prostate.
2. Urinalysis to check for signs of infection or other urinary problems.
3. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test to measure the level of PSA in the blood, which can be elevated in men with BPH as well as prostate cancer.
4. Kidney function tests to assess the impact of the enlarged prostate on the kidneys.
5. Post-void residual volume test, which measures how much urine remains in the bladder after urination.
6. Uroflowmetry, a test that measures the speed of urine flow.
7. Cystoscopy, a procedure that allows the doctor to view the inside of the bladder and urethra.
8. Transrectal ultrasound to visualize the prostate and measure its size.

Treatment Options

The recommended treatments for an enlarged prostate may include:
1. Watchful waiting or active surveillance for men with mild symptoms.
2. Medications such as alpha-blockers (eg. tamsulosin) that relax the muscles of the prostate and bladder neck, making it easier to pass urine.
3. 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (eg. finasteride or dutasteride) to shrink the enlarged prostate.
4. Combination therapy using both alpha-blockers and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors for more effective symptom relief.
5. Minimally invasive therapies such as transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) or transurethral needle ablation (TUNA).
6. Surgical options, such as transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), if symptoms are severe or other treatments are not effective.

Doctors and Specialists Likely To Be Involved In The Patient’s Care

  • Primary care physician (PCP) or an adult general practitioner (GP) for initial evaluation and referral for further treatment where necessary.
  • Urologist for specialised assessment, diagnosis, and management of prostate enlargement.
  • Radiologist for imaging studies if needed.
  • Anaesthesiologist for any procedures requiring anaesthesia.
  • Oncologist may be consulted if there is a concern for prostate cancer.
  • Pharmacist for medication management and counselling on the medications frequently used to manage an enlarged prostate.

Importance of Treatment

Treatment for BPH is important to alleviate symptoms, improve quality of life, and prevent complications.

Early detection and treatment of BPH can significantly improve quality of life. - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Related Conditions or Complications

Men with BPH may also have other conditions such as erectile dysfunction, bladder stones, and chronic kidney disease.

Outlook and Prognosis

With appropriate treatment, most men with BPH can manage their symptoms and live a comfortable life. The prognosis is generally very good, but it can depend on factors such as the severity of symptoms and any underlying conditions.

Lifestyle changes can be a simple yet effective part of managing BPH symptoms. - NHS

Practical Tips & Coping Strategies

  • Follow your doctor's treatment plan
  • Limit fluid intake in the evening
  • Limit caffeine and alcohol
  • Exercise regularly
  • Maintain a healthy weight

In conclusion

Prostate enlargement, or BPH - an enlarged prostate - is a prevalent condition affecting older men, leading to urinary symptoms that can impact quality of life. Understanding the symptoms, seeking diagnosis, and exploring treatment options, including lifestyle changes and medical interventions, are crucial for managing this condition. With proper care, most men can effectively manage their symptoms of enlarged prostate and maintain a good quality of life.

The Odycy blog: What you need to know

Explore Odycy's health and wellness blog with confidence. Our content is reviewed and updated regularly by registered Medical Doctors with subject expertise. Odycy aims to provide you with a reliable and trustworthy source of information to help you take control of your health journey. Odycy's content is written for educational purposes and does not substitute professional medical advice. You can read about Our Editors and learn more about our Editorial Guidelines. Our Chief Medical Editor is Dr. Nicholas Bush MBBS BSc (Hons).

Frequently Asked Questions

What is Prostate Enlargement?

Prostate enlargement, an enlarged prostate, also known as Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), is a condition where the prostate gland grows larger, which can lead to urinary problems such as difficulty starting urination, a weak urine stream, and frequent urination, especially at night.

What are the symptoms of an enlarged prostate?

The symptoms of an enlarged prostate can include frequent urination, urgency to urinate, difficulty starting urination, a weak urine stream, the need to strain while urinating, and the sensation of not fully emptying the bladder.

What causes Prostate Enlargement?

The exact cause of enlarged prostate is not known, but it is believed to be related to hormonal changes as men age. Factors such as genetics and lifestyle may also contribute to the development of BPH.

How is Prostate Enlargement diagnosed?

Prostate enlargement is diagnosed through a combination of a physical examination, including a digital rectal exam, patient history, and tests such as urine tests, blood tests, and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. In some cases, imaging tests or a biopsy may be necessary.

What are the treatment options for Prostate Enlargement?

Treatment of an enlarged prostate includes lifestyle changes, medications, minimally invasive procedures, and surgery. The choice of treatment depends on the severity of symptoms, the size of the prostate, and the patient's overall health.

Can Prostate Enlargement lead to complications if untreated?

If left untreated, prostate enlargement can lead to complications such as urinary tract infections, bladder stones, acute urinary retention, and kidney damage.

Is Prostate Enlargement the same as prostate cancer?

No, an enlarged prostate that is diagnosed as BPH, is not the same as prostate cancer. BPH is a benign condition, which means it is not cancerous. However, the symptoms of BPH can be similar to those of prostate cancer, so it's important to see a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis.

Additional Resources, Support and References

Support and resources in the UK, including England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland, here are some key networks, charities, and organizations:

See More
See Less


  • Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland.
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA): A protein produced by the prostate, elevated levels of which can indicate prostate problems.
  • Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP): A surgical procedure to treat BPH.
  • Urologist: A doctor specialising in the urinary tract and male reproductive system.
See More
See Less

A Note from Our Medical Director